Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Creativity Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Mihaly. AND INVENTION. MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI Five: The Flow of Creativity Creativity. Appendix A: Brief Biographical. Sketches of the Respondents. Rethinking Creative Practice in the Light of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's Systems Model of Creativity. Article (PDF Available) · January with.
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from Csikszentmihalyi, M. (). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper/Ccjllins (pp. plus Notes). 3. Csikszentmihalyi's take on creativity. .. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow is applied as a means to understand the subjective. Mihaly Csikszentmihaly and His Theory. • Creativity: the Psychology of Discovery and. Invention. • Creative Society. • Creative Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi.
When compared to human raters, NLP techniques were shown to be reliable and valid in scoring the originality. Semantic networks were also used to devise originality scores that yielded significant correlations with socio-personal measures. Kaufman and Mark A. Runco  combined expertise in creativity research, natural language processing, computational linguistics, and statistical data analysis to devise a scalable system for computerized automated testing SparcIt Creativity Index Testing system.
This system enabled automated scoring of DT tests that is reliable, objective, and scalable, thus addressing most of the issues of DT tests that had been found and reported. In these studies, personality traits such as independence of judgement, self-confidence, attraction to complexity, aesthetic orientation, and risk-taking are used as measures of the creativity of individuals. Compared to non-artists, artists tend to have higher levels of openness to experience and lower levels of conscientiousness, while scientists are more open to experience, conscientious , and higher in the confidence-dominance facets of extraversion compared to non-scientists.
These methods use quantitative characteristics such as the number of publications, patents, or performances of a work. While this method was originally developed for highly creative personalities, today it is also available as self-report questionnaires supplemented with frequent, less outstanding creative behaviors such as writing a short story or creating your own recipes.
For example, the Creative Achievement Questionnaire , a self-report test that measures creative achievement across 10 domains, was described in and shown to be reliable and valid when compared to other measures of creativity and to independent evaluation of creative output. It is the self-report questionnaire most frequently used in research. This joint focus highlights both the theoretical and practical importance of the relationship: researchers are interested not only if the constructs are related, but also how and why.
Displays of creativity are moderated by intelligence. To demonstrate this, Gardner cited examples of different famous creators, each of whom differed in their types of intelligences e. Picasso spatial intelligence ; Freud intrapersonal ; Einstein logical-mathematical ; and Gandhi interpersonal.
Experiential sub-theory — the ability to use pre-existing knowledge and skills to solve new and novel problems — is directly related to creativity. The Cattell—Horn—Carroll theory includes creativity as a subset of intelligence.
Specifically, it is associated with the broad group factor of long-term storage and retrieval Glr. Silvia et al.
Martindale  extended the CHC-theory in the sense that it was proposed that those individuals who are creative are also selective in their processing speed Martindale argues that in the creative process, larger amounts of information are processed more slowly in the early stages, and as the individual begins to understand the problem, the processing speed is increased. Type 1 is a conscious process, and concerns goal directed thoughts, which are explained by g.
Type 2 is an unconscious process, and concerns spontaneous cognition, which encompasses daydreaming and implicit learning ability. Kaufman argues that creativity occurs as a result of Type 1 and Type 2 processes working together in combination.
The use of each type in the creative process can be used to varying degrees. Intelligence as a subset of creativity[ edit ] In this relationship model, intelligence is a key component in the development of creativity. The creative individual has to persevere, and convince the others of the ideas value. According to this theory, six distinct, but related elements contribute to successful creativity: intelligence, knowledge, thinking styles, personality, motivation, and environment.
Intelligence is just one of the six factors that can either solely, or in conjunction with the other five factors, generate creative thoughts.
Creativity requires a confluence of all components. High creativity will result when an individual is: intrinsically motivated, possesses both a high level of domain-relevant skills and has high skills in creative thinking, and is working in a highly creative environment. Amusement Park Theoretical Model. The researchers make use of the metaphor of the amusement park to demonstrate that within each of these creative levels, intelligence plays a key role: To get into the amusement park, there are initial requirements e.
Initial requirements like intelligence are necessary, but not sufficient for creativity. Secondly are the subcomponents — general thematic areas — that increase in specificity. Like choosing which type of amusement park to visit e.
Thirdly, there are specific domains. After choosing the type of park to visit e. Within the poetry domain, there are many different types e.
Lastly, there are micro-domains. These are the specific tasks that reside within each domain e. Creativity and intelligence as overlapping yet distinct constructs[ edit ] This possible relationship concerns creativity and intelligence as distinct, but intersecting constructs.
Under this view, creativity and intelligence are distinct constructs, but they do overlap under the correct conditions. PASS theory of intelligence. In this theory, the planning component — relating to the ability to solve problems, make decisions and take action — strongly overlaps with the concept of creativity. Above this threshold of an IQ of , if there is a relationship at all, it is small and weak. In support of the TT, Barron   reported finding a non-significant correlation between creativity and intelligence in a gifted sample; and a significant correlation in a non-gifted sample.
Fuchs-Beauchamp et al. Cho et al. Jauk et al.
Much modern day research reports findings against TT. Wai et al. Preckel et al. Creativity and intelligence as coincident sets[ edit ] Under this view, researchers posit that there are no differences in the mechanisms underlying creativity in those used in normal problem solving; and in normal problem solving, there is no need for creativity. Thus, creativity and Intelligence problem solving are the same thing. The problem can only be solved if the lines go outside the boundaries of the square of dots.
Results demonstrated that even when participants were given this insight, they still found it difficult to solve the problem, thus showing that to successfully complete the task it is not just insight or creativity that is required. Creativity and intelligence as disjoint sets[ edit ] In this view, creativity and intelligence are completely different, unrelated constructs. Getzels and Jackson  administered 5 creativity measures to a group of children from grades , and compared these test findings to results from previously administered by the school IQ tests.
However, this work has been heavily criticised. Wallach and Kogan  highlighted that the creativity measures were not only weakly related to one another to the extent that they were no more related to one another than they were with IQ , but they seemed to also draw upon non-creative skills. McNemar  noted that there were major measurement issues, in that the IQ scores were a mixture from 3 different IQ tests.
Wallach and Kogan  administered 5 measures of creativity, each of which resulted in a score for originality and fluency; and 10 measures of general intelligence to 5th grade children.
These tests were untimed, and given in a game-like manner aiming to facilitate creativity. Neuroscience[ edit ] The neuroscience of creativity looks at the operation of the brain during creative behaviour. Thus, the frontal lobe appears to be the part of the cortex that is most important for creativity.
This article also explored the links between creativity and sleep, mood and addiction disorders , and depression. In , Alice Flaherty presented a three-factor model of the creative drive. Drawing from evidence in brain imaging, drug studies and lesion analysis, she described the creative drive as resulting from an interaction of the frontal lobes, the temporal lobes , and dopamine from the limbic system.
The frontal lobes can be seen as responsible for idea generation, and the temporal lobes for idea editing and evaluation. Abnormalities in the frontal lobe such as depression or anxiety generally decrease creativity, while abnormalities in the temporal lobe often increase creativity.
High activity in the temporal lobe typically inhibits activity in the frontal lobe, and vice versa. High dopamine levels increase general arousal and goal directed behaviors and reduce latent inhibition , and all three effects increase the drive to generate ideas. Vandervert's explanation rests on considerable evidence that all processes of working memory responsible for processing all thought  are adaptively modeled for increased efficiency by the cerebellum.
The cerebellum's adaptive models of working memory processing are then fed back to especially frontal lobe working memory control processes  where creative and innovative thoughts arise. These new levels of the control architecture are fed forward to the frontal lobes. Since the cerebellum adaptively models all movement and all levels of thought and emotion,  Vandervert's approach helps explain creativity and innovation in sports, art, music, the design of video games, technology, mathematics, the child prodigy , and thought in general.
Essentially, Vandervert has argued that when a person is confronted with a challenging new situation, visual-spatial working memory and speech-related working memory are decomposed and re-composed fractionated by the cerebellum and then blended in the cerebral cortex in an attempt to deal with the new situation.
With repeated attempts to deal with challenging situations, the cerebro-cerebellar blending process continues to optimize the efficiency of how working memory deals with the situation or problem. Further, Vandervert and Vandervert-Weathers believe that this repetitive "mental prototyping" or mental rehearsal involving the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex explains the success of the self-driven, individualized patterning of repetitions initiated by the teaching methods of the Khan Academy.
The model proposed by Vandervert has, however, received incisive critique from several authors. Sleep aids this process. It is proposed that REM sleep adds creativity by allowing "neocortical structures to reorganize associative hierarchies, in which information from the hippocampus would be reinterpreted in relation to previous semantic representations or nodes. As noted in voting behavior , the term "affect" in this context can refer to liking or disliking key aspects of the subject in question.
This work largely follows from findings in psychology regarding the ways in which affective states are involved in human judgment and decision-making. Together, these processes lead positive affect to have a positive influence on creativity. Barbara Fredrickson in her broaden-and-build model suggests that positive emotions such as joy and love broaden a person's available repertoire of cognitions and actions, thus enhancing creativity.
Very few of those involved in the study demonstrated high levels of artistic achievement later in life. Csikszentmihalyi notes that studies suggest that there seems to be a cutoff point at around Having a higher than average intelligence might contribute to creativity, but having an IQ over does not necessarily lead to greater creativity. Csikszentmihalyi suggests that creativity involves a certain amount of both wisdom and childishness. Creative people are smart, but they are able to maintain their sense of wonder, curiosity, and ability to look at the world with fresh eyes.
When working on a project, creative people tend to exhibit determination and doggedness. They will work for hours on something, often staying up late into the night until they are satisfied with their work.
Consider what you would think when you meet someone who is an artist. On the surface, it sounds both exciting, romantic, and glamorous. And for many, being an artist certainly does involve a great deal of excitement. But being a successful artist is also a lot of work, which is what many people fail to see. A creative person, however, realizes that real creativity involves combining both the fun and the hard work. They can immerse themselves in imagination and fantasy, yet remain grounded in reality.
Creative types, ranging from scientists to artists to musicians, can come up with imaginative solutions to real-world issues. And they are right. But the whole point of art and science is to go beyond what we now consider real and create a new reality.