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    In Experiment 2, the Orbscan power at mm was selected for IOL In particular, when using manual keratometry to measure the corneal power at the mm. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" The Orbscan is a slit-scanning device and the Pentacam is Scheimpflug imaging device. we see these advanced topographers next to simple manual keratometers that Orbscan generates elevation data of the anterior and posterior corneal. The s brought to ophthalmology small incision cataract surgery with its numerous benefits, namely less surgical trauma to the eye with rapid wound healing.

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    Orbscan Manual Ebook

    Examples of elevation devices are the Orbscan. (Bausch & Lomb) . automatically; however, some topographers require manual measurement of HVID. This. After a detailed evaluation by the ophthalmologist and specialised tests including an orbscan and retina evaluation, we can decide whether lasik is suitable for. Manual keratometry is the oldest method used to measure the corneal curvature. IOL power calculation, the Pentacam unit has been programmed to calculate.

    Accuracy of different topographic instruments in calculating corneal power after myopic photorefractive keratectomy p. Methods: Patients with myopia who were candidates for corneal refractive surgery were sequentially included. Measured values were compared with those obtained using the clinical history method cHM. Results: This study included 66 eyes of 33 patients. The lowest keratometric measurements were obtained using the Galilei topographer The same order was observed postoperatively. Evaluation of changes in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and aberrations in patients with keratoconus after corneal collagen cross-linking p. Methods: Twenty-two eyes of 11 patients with keratoconus were enrolled in this prospective study. Results: The mean total HOAs of the included patients were 2. A significant reduction in corneal HOAs including vertical coma, vertical and horizontal trefoil and spherical aberration was observed 6 and 8 months after CXL. Stereoacuity after wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy in anisometropia p. Methods: Myopic patients with at least 1 diopter D of anisometropia in sphere, astigmatism, or spherical equivalent who were referred to our hospital for excimer refractive surgery were enrolled as a prospective sequential interventional case series. Results: Between January and November , a total of 98 eyes of 49 patients

    Demographic characteristics, surgery types, success rate, and follow-up periods were recorded.

    Counselling in Cornea Clinic

    Success was defined as the elimination of epiphora, absence of dacryocystitis, and negative syringing test result i. Results: A total of 67 patients were operated during the period. Fifty-seven patients completed the follow-up of 60 months.

    The mean age in the conventional and endoscopic groups was The participants included 33 female and 24 male patients. After a period of 60 months, patency on syringing and resolution of epiphora was documented in 26 patients in the conventional group success rate, Conclusion: The success rates of conventional and endonasal DCR during a follow-up period of five years in patients with acute dacryocystitis are almost similar.

    The effect of sub-Tenon's bupivacaine on oculocardiac reflex during strabismus surgery and postoperative pain: A randomized clinical trial p. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of sub-Tenon injection of bupivacaine for prevention of OCR and postoperative pain. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. Fifty patients who were candidates for strabismus surgery were randomized into case sub-Tenon's bupivacaine injection or control normal saline injection groups.

    Standard strabismus surgery was performed for all cases. Occurrence and severity of OCR primary outcome and postoperative pain using the Visual Analog Scale were compared between the two groups. Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group mean score, 2. Conclusions: Sub-Tenon injection of bupivacaine as a local anesthetic can significantly prevent OCR and decrease the severity of bradycardia.

    This technique can also diminish postoperative pain in patients who underwent strabismus surgery. Validation of farsi translation of the ocular surface disease index p. Four bilingual English-Persian individual including three physicians and one native English teacher were asked to translate the original English OSDI questionnaire in Farsi.

    Following back and forth translation, integration and pilot check, the translation team came to consensus on translation. F-OSDI was again rechecked within days after the examination. Results: Forty-four participants were enrolled into study. Thirty-two Mean age of participants was The cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire was 0. Questions number 7, 8 showed excellent, and question12 showed good internal consistency, respectively.

    There was a significant correlation between all pre measures and post assessments. Open in a separate window Operative Procedure Preoperatively all patients were provided informed consent regarding surgery and data collection for this study. Treatments were performed without wave-front guided, customized ablations.

    All eyes healed quickly and without complications. Data Collection The preoperative and postoperative refractions were measured using a phoropter set for mm vertex distance.

    The refractive errors were then vertex-adjusted to the corneal plane, aided by the computer program on the VISX S4 Laser. The spherical equivalent of this vertex-adjusted refraction was calculated in standard fashion by adding one half of the cylinder to the sphere. The refractive correction induced by the LASIK procedure was calculated by subtracting the vertex-adjusted, spherical equivalent refraction measured postoperatively from that measured preoperatively.

    The keratometric values of the preoperative and postoperative Orbscan II power maps were compared at each paracentral zone. The Orbscan II-measured corneal power change, which resulted from the LASIK procedure, was calculated by subtracting the postoperative keratometric value from the preoperative value at each paracentral zone, namely, 1.

    This was measured by subtracting the refractive correction from the Orbscan II keratometric change at each zone of measurement. For purposes of analysis and discussion, the difference is termed Orbscan II correlation factor.

    The mean Orbscan correlation factor was then calculated at each paracentral zone for all eyes studied. A perfect Orbscan correlation factor value for this study is zero and indicates that the change in the Orbscan II calculated mean power map at a given zone equals the refractive change induced by the LASIK procedure. The mean Orbscan correlation factor was compared among the paracentral zones 1.

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    All patients had previously undergone myopic LASIK, were stable from the refractive surgery, and were free of other ocular disease. All patients who fit these inclusion criteria are reported in this consecutive series.

    The sample size for this experiment is limited to all available patients during this time interval that fit the inclusion criteria. Signed informed consents were obtained from all patients. Prior to cataract surgery, each eye was measured for the IOL power necessary to achieve emmetropia postoperatively. The Orbscan II was used to measure the mean power maps of the cornea at the 1.

    Four of the 13 patients contributed two eyes to the study. In these bilateral cases, each eye was measured separately.

    Anterior corneal asphericity calculated by the tangential radius of curvature

    IOL power calculations and lens selection for the second eye were made independent of the results obtained in the first eye. This was done to minimize the use of interdependent data that might bias the outcomes. Operative Procedure Patients underwent standardized phacoemulsification cataract surgery with a self-sealing 3. The anterior chamber depth is measured through a lateral slit-illumination and is defined as the measurement between the corneal epithelium and the anterior lens surface.

    In addition to axial length, the unit measures central corneal thickness CCT and aqueous depth, defined as the measurement from the corneal endothelium to the anterior lens surface. It also measures the crystalline lens thickness Figure 3. Multiple studies have shown that very accurate and reproducible measurements are obtained by optical biometry and immersion ultrasound biometry. Contact ultrasound biometry is not advised in these cases.

    Preoperative Evaluation

    This is especially true in very long eyes that might harbor a posterior pole staphyloma. Keratometry Corneal power is the second most important factor affecting IOL power calculations after the axial length. A keratometric error of 1 diopter D affects the postoperative refraction by approximately the same amount. The keratometer measures the anterior radius of corneal curvature, expressed in millimeters.

    This is translated into diopters by considering the entire corneal power to be at the anterior corneal surface. Most manual keratometers take 2 readings at the steepest meridian and 2 readings at the flattest meridian.

    Automated keratometry has gained in popularity in the past 2 decades.

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